One inmate was serving a three-year sentence on convictions of receiving stolen goods, possession of forged passport and illegal entry to the country. The second man was serving a 25-year sentence for felony drug trafficking.
According to a justice ministry announcement, the two escapees used a ladder to scale the prison's outer wall.
Meanwhile, the ministry ordered a preliminary investigation into the circumstances surrounding the death of a 44 year-old man remanded in custody at the Korydallos penitentiary. The victim was found on Sunday by other prisoners hanged in his cell.
He was facing a charge of aggravated assault and has been hospitalised at the facility's psychiatric ward recently.